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The access card has memory on it, which means it can store data. The card is known as a "Conditional Access Module," or CAM. Each card has a unique identification number (called the CAM ID) which is how DirecTV can add or remove programming from each and every individual card. The cards are very similar to standard smart cards, but they implore advanced security measures to ensure that the card cannot be tampered with using a standard smart card reader/writer. In the span of DIRECTV, there have been 3 different generations, or versions of the Access Cards, and they are named according to the letter that precedes the identification number. In chronological order, these cards were the F, the H, and the HU. If you buy a DIRECTV system today, it comes with a HU, because the first two generations of cards were susceptible to security hacks- people found ways of breaking the cards security, and adding their own programming info. DirecTV's access cards follow an industry standard in smartcards, known as ISO7816. Hence, any standard ISO7816 smartcard programmer can read and write these cards with the proper software. CAM ID A unique identification number present on the memory of each and every DIRECTV Access Card, and also explicitly printed on the back of the card. IRD The common term for satellite receiver. Receiverís also have unique identification numbers. Marrying your computerís serial port and permits a hacker to read and write to any ISO7816 smartcard, such as the access cards. Update aka USW A change in the code on the access card, usually done to destroy cards with hacks on them, or to add some fuctionality (such as interactive TV) to the access card. USW stands for Update Status Word, and simply counts the number of times the card has been updated. A card with a USW of 5 has been updated 5 times, for example. Datastream (aka Stream, Signal, Satellite Signal) The datastream is just that- a stream of data. It is specifically the waves of encrypted (scrambled) data that are sent down from DirecTVís satellites up in space. When you tune to a channel, it is encrypted. The access card then computes the datastream, and if the card says the channel is authorized, it descrambles the signal for the television. Programmer An ISO7816 smartcard reader/writer that plugs into your computerís serial port and permits a hacker to read and write to any ISO7816 smartcard, such as the access cards. Update Access Card DirecTVís means of providing certain programming to certain households, from each and every individual card. The cards are very similar to standard smart cards, but they implore advanced security measures to ensure that the card cannot be tampered with using a standard smart card reader/writer. In the span of DIRECTV, there have been 3 different generations, or versions of the Access Cards, and they are named according to the letter that precedes the identification number. In chronological order, these cards were the F, the H, and the HU. If you buy a DIRECTV system today, it comes with a HU, because the first two generations of cards were susceptible to security hacks- people found ways of breaking the cards security, and adding their own programming info. DirecTV's access cards follow an industry standard in smartcards, known as ISO7816. Hence, any standard ISO7816 smartcard programmer can read and write these cards with the proper software. CAM ID A unique identification number present on the memory of each and every DIRECTV Access Card, and also explicitly printed on the back of the card. IRD The common term for satellite receiver. Receiverís also have unique identification numbers. Marrying When an access card that has just come hot from the factory (ie brand new, or "virgin") is activated for programming by DirecTV, the card writes down the receiverís identification number into its memory. The card then uses this number to prevent it's being moved to different receivers. In essence, the card and receiver have "married" each other. If you then remove the card and place it into another receiver, you will get an error message, Satellite DSS

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